FREE Basic Verbal Practice Exercise
Basic Verbal Practice:
Logic & Critical Thinking:
01. If some students of Earnest Prep™ are attending motivational seminar, which of the following statement MUST be true? (Indicate all that apply)
I. Most of the students of Earnest Prep™ are attending motivational seminar.
II. Some of the students who are attending motivational seminar are from Earnest Prep™.
III. Some of the students who are attending motivational seminar are not from Earnest Prep™.
02. If some students of Earnest Prep™ are not attending motivational seminar, which of the following statement CANNOT be true? (Indicate all that apply)
I. None of the students of Earnest Prep™ is attending motivational seminar.
II. All of the students who are attending motivational seminar are from Earnest Prep™.
III. None of the students of Earnest Prep™ is not attending motivational seminar.
03. If City A is on west of City B, which is on East of City C, which of the following conclusion can be most appropriately drawn? (Indicate all that apply)
I. City C is on the middle of City A and City B.
II. City A is on the west of City C.
III. City C situated between City A and City B.
04. Many people believe that smoking is one of the biggest cause of chest cancer. However, according to a research, only 2% of the patients of chest cancers are smokers. Which of the following conclusion can be most appropriately drawn from the given information? (Indicate all that apply)
I. Smoking do not cause chest cancer.
II. Most cancer patients have abandoned smoking after they realized that they have chest cancer.
III. Smoking might be the cause of chest cancer, but not the biggest.
05. If City X is the capital of Country Y, and Market A is the biggest financial hub of City X, then which of the following is a valid conclusion? (Indicate all that apply)
I. Financial activity in Market A is more than rest of the City X.
II. Market A is the biggest financial hub of Country Y.
III. Financial activity in Country Y is not less than that of City X.
Reading Purposefully (Long Passage):
HINT: Do not read for information, just read for purpose by using strategy you’ve learned.
Caffeine, the stimulant in coffee, has been called “the most widely used psychoactive substance on Earth.” Snyder, Daly, and Bruns have recently proposed that caffeine affects behavior by countering the activity in the human brain of a naturally occurring chemical called adenosine. Adenosine normally depresses neuron firing in many areas of the brain. It apparently does this by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry nerve impulses from one neuron to the next.
Like many other agents that affect neuron firing, adenosine must first bind to specific receptors on neuronal membranes. There are at least two classes of these receptors, which have been designated A1 and A2. Snyder et al. propose that caffeine, which is structurally similar to adenosine, is able to bind to both types of receptors, which prevents adenosine from attaching there and allows the neurons to fire more readily than they otherwise would.
For many years, caffeine’s effects have been attributed to its inhibition of the production of phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the chemical called cyclic AMP. A number of neurotransmitters exert their effects by first increasing cyclic AMP concentrations in target neurons. Therefore, prolonged periods at the elevated concentrations, as might be brought about by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, could lead to a greater amount of neuron firing and, consequently, to behavioral stimulation. But Snyder et al. point out that the caffeine concentrations needed to inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase in the brain are much higher than those that produce stimulation . Moreover, other compounds that block phosphodiesterase’s activity are not stimulants.
To buttress their case that caffeine acts instead by preventing adenosine binding, Snyder et al. compared the stimulatory effects of a series of caffeine derivatives with their ability to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in the brains of mice. “In general,” they reported, “the ability of the compounds to compete at the receptors correlates with their ability to stimulate locomotion in the mouse; i.e., the higher their capacity to bind at the receptors, the higher their ability to stimulate locomotion.” Theophylline, a close structural relative of caffeine and the major stimulant in tea, was one of the most effective compounds in both regards.
There were some apparent exceptions to the general correlation observed between adenosine receptor binding and stimulation . One of these was a compound called 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX), which bound very well but actually depressed mouse locomotion. Snyder et al. suggest that this is not a major stumbling block to their hypothesis. The problem is that the compound has mixed effects in the brain, a not unusual occurrence with psychoactive drugs. Even caffeine, which is generally known only for its stimulatory effects, displays this property, depressing mouse locomotion at very low concentrations and stimulating it at higher ones.
06. The primary purpose of the passage is
A) To discuss a plan for investigation of a phenomenon that is not yet fully understood
B) To present two explanations of a phenomenon and reconcile the differences between them
C) To summarize two theories and suggest a third theory that overcomes the problems encountered in the first two
D) To describe an alternative hypothesis and provide evidence and arguments that support it
E) To challenge the validity of a theory by exposing the inconsistencies and contradictions in it
Reading Purposefully (Short Passage):
Ecoefficiency (measures to minimize environmental impact through the reduction or elimination of waste from production processes) has become a goal for companies worldwide, with many realizing significant cost savings from such innovations. Peter Senge and Goran Carstedt see this development as laudable but suggest that simply adopting ecoefficiency innovations could actually worsen environmental stresses in the future. Such innovations reduce production waste but do not alter the number of products manufactured nor the waste generated from their use and discard; indeed, most companies invest in ecoefficiency improvements in order to increase profits and growth. Moreover, there is no guarantee that increased economic growth from ecoefficiency will come in similarly ecoefficient ways, since in today’s global markets, greater profits may be turned into investment capital that could easily be reinvested in old-style eco-inefficient industries. Evena vastly more ecoefficient industrial system could, were it to grow much larger, generate more total waste and destroy more habitat and species than would a smaller, less ecoefficient economy. Senge and Carstedt argue that to preserve the global environment and sustain economic growth, businesses must develop a new systemic approach that reduces total material use and total accumulated waste. Focusing exclusively on ecoefficiency, which offers a compelling business case according to established thinking, may distract companies from pursuing radically different products and business models.
07. What is the primary purpose of the passage?
A) To explain why a particular business strategy has been less successful than was once anticipated
B) To propose an alternative to a particular business strategy that has inadvertently caused ecological damage
C) To present a concern about the possible consequences of pursuing a particular business strategy
D) To make a case for applying a particular business strategy on a larger scale than is currently practiced
E) To suggest several possible outcomes of companies’ failure to understand the economic impact of a particular business strategy
01. II only
02. III only (III is true, because it means in Earnest Prep, nobody is there who is not attending seminar)
03. None of the above. (Because it follows that: C ….. A …… C …… B, which means C can be either West or East of A)
04. III only
I is not true, because the argument is not about carelessness of cancer patients. The argument is trying to reveal relationship between smoking and chest cancer.
II is also cannot be drawn as conclusion, because this statement is actually undermine the conclusion that would most appropriately be drawn. If cancer patients have abandon smocking, then the author might believe that smocking IS the biggest cause. But actually, the author want to say the opposite of this. In short, only 2% of patients are smokers reveals that smocking is not the biggest cause of chest cancer. This option would be the write answer if the argument ask which of the following can most jeopardize the argument, if conclusion is stated in argument or question stem.
III accurately stating the conclusion because if only 2% of the cancer patients exhibit smoking, so smoking might be the minor cause, but not the major. Thus III is best choice.
05. III (Hint: A valid conclusion is MUST be true, rather than could be true. And “more than the REST of city” and “more than any other market of the city” are completely different statements)
Market A has 100 activities, while Market B, C, D and E etc in city X have 99, 98, 97 and 96 activities. So Market A is biggest financial hub, but the activity in market is not necessarily greater than the rest of the city X.
06. D (Those who still read the passage for info, tell me whether any benefit that info gave you 😀 😀 )
Flow of passage:
The passage started with the recent proposed hypothesis of three scientists. Then the passage start arguing why that proposal is relevant and helpful in finding how Caffeine stimulate at much higher rate, thereby effecting behavior.
Key decision points: Focus on words like: Proposed, But Snyder at al, To buttress (i.e to support), apparent exception, not a major block to hypothesis, The problem, Not unusual occurrence, displays this property.
A: This option is quite hard to eliminate or select. Let’s discuss it at the end.
B: It’s wrong choice, because there’s no as such two explanation provided for a phenomena. Furthermore, two classes of receptors doesn’t mean two explanation of a phenomena.
C: It’s clearly wrong answer, because it can easily eliminated for providing information about third theory, which is out of scope.
D: This choice also looks close like choice A. Let’s discuss this later as well.
E: It is incorrect choice, because the passage does not seem to challenge anything at any point.
Now, we are left with choice A and choice D.
Let’s analyze these two choices more precisely.
A: It starts with words ‘To discuss a plan’
D: This choice starts with words ‘To describe an alternative hypothesis’
Both have similar in meaning, so let’s read more
A: To discuss a plan for investigation of a phenomenon that is still ambiguous
D: To describe an alternative hypothesis and provide some support to this
Clearly according to our organization of the passage, choice D is most close, while the second part of choice , that says ‘still not understood’ makes this choice irrelevant to the main point. The passage supported the alternate hypothesis at the end.
Therefore, choice D is correct.
Before going to answer choices, first let’s write down the crux of the short-passage that you should build in your mind rather than writing it down to save time.
Flow of passage:
Pre-thinking: The passage was about criticizing a business strategy by identifying some possible worse consequences. The passage trying to show that the strategy will fail to achieve its goal. And finally, suggesting to think about a new strategy that truly reach its objective.
Key determining points: Focus on words like could simply worsen, no guaranty, may be turned, could easily be reinvested, and may distract; these words depicts something about future, rather than past. Therefore, the passage is showing some possibility worse impact of a strategy in future, and will fail to achieve its objective.
A: This choice is wrong, and it’s a trap answer choice. Because the explanation of ‘why a strategy has been less successful than anticipated?’ must include reasons of failure in the past. But the author is predicting some failure to meet objective in the future rather than at present or in the past. So you need to be precious and accurate while selecting the answer choice.
B: It’s wrong, because the argument did not propose any alternative as such. Suggesting a new approach mentioned in the last of the passage is not the main point, i.e crux of the whole passage. It’s just a point not the main point. The passage is mainly about expressing some negative outcomes of a particular business strategy
C: This is very close to the main point which we have determined in our summery above. The author is exactly showing such concerns about the future outcomes (i.e consequences of pursuing these strategies). But let’s see other choices just for getting more confidence and surety about this choice.
D: It’s wrong because it is clearly out of scope. I’ll not explain it, because almost all of you have eliminate this choice, being out of scope.
E: It is also wrong, because companies do not fail to understand the impact, rather companies know the impact, but are profit oriented rather than objective oriented, according to the passage.