Finding conclusion in a argument:
Let’s understand how to find the conclusion in an argument. For that purpose, you should keep in mind that a fact CANNOT be a conclusion. As a conclusion is something that can be weaken or challenged, so a conclusion is always an opinion, rather than a fact. Alright! Now let’s proceed.
Traffic congestion has become a significant problem in modern day life, where fast transportation without any blockage has become necessity. To overcome this issue, Government of Country X has introduced a policy to impose huge taxes on vehicles covering some space according to their size. Since imposing such taxes would not discourage transporters to use their vehicles, rather it might result to a higher transportation fare. Therefore, the proposed policy would fail in achieving its goal.
Which of the following statement, if true, would strengthen the argument above.
A) Traffic congestion has become the challenge in modern lifestyle.
B) Higher taxes would facilitate the Government of Country X to increase their annual budget.
C) Their convenience has become the necessity for the vehicle owners, so taxes are no big hurdle.
D) The income generated from the budget can be used to make wider roads to avoid the issue.
E) The Government should spend its budget in construction of new flyovers, rather than imposing these taxes in long-run.
After shortening the statements in deciding the conclusion, you can easily identify the conclusion clearly. For instance, in above example, a statement that imply the other statement (rather than being implied by the other statement) cannot be the conclusion. So the sentence, which starts with the word ‘Since’, is implying the reason of why some future would most likely to happen.
So the most important and the first step in answering any C.R question is to find the conclusion, after reading the question statement. The separation of each sentence into facts and opinions would not only help in finding the conclusion, but also it would help in many other things. Those you’ll learn in next lectures. At this stage, you need to be confident in finding out the conclusion.
In some medium to hard level passages, you will sometimes see more than one conclusions. Especially in Bold Faced Portion type of questions. The separation of these sentences on basis of fact and opinion would also help in answering those questions. And in many other important type of questions. You’ll learn those in detail later on in advance level study plan. In this FREE Basic Verbal Concept-03, you should only focus on conclusion.
Opinion vs Fact yet again:
Opinion can be considered as fact. For instance, ‘If the information above is true, which of the following must also be true?’
Now here, in the question, the test maker says let’s suppose if we believe the above statements are all facts, then which of the following would also be the fact. I think that is perfect for your understanding. But we’ll discuss this later on in advance level lectures.
Argument vs Information:
Every argument must have a conclusion and at least one premises. Premises are facts or opinion other than the conclusion. So without a conclusion, the argument is no more valid. It is just considered as some information or facts. But if the information or fact is stated by somebody, we can draw a conclusion out of the information.
Now, let’s learn how to draw a conclusion from given information or stated facts:
First, I’m discussing for those who are starters. Given below is some information or stated facts. You are required to draw conclusion based on these information. It’s much easy that is only for starters.
“Every man who is not injured, can play football. And Shahid is a non-injured man.”
From these statement, you can easily draw conclusion i.e: “Shahid can play football”.
Similarly, “We must reduce our expenditures due to the global recession”.
Does the above statement is an argument or just an information? It is a valid argument. And here conclusion is “We must reduce our expenditures”. I’m sure you have now started to sense the little different tone of the sentence that is the conclusion. After going through few lectures, you’ll quickly know the conclusion without waste of even a second. So just at start I advice to start your brain to pass through series of steps. Just as in math, you were required to go through each steps to answer a question in secondary school and high school level. And now, after getting hands on practices, calculations are in your fingertips. Similarly, here you have to go through each steps even if you understand the concepts effectively. After completing this course, you’ll most likely able to answer any Critical Reasoning question within 2 minutes or less.
Finding Conclusion Exercise:
Each of the following sentences below contains short arguments. You are required to identify the conclusion in each of the following case:
1. “Given that the population of this country is increasing at much higher rate, we will most probably face tremendous competition in almost every business.”
2. “The political condition in Afghanistan is unstable owing to the inability of individual people to contribute to the decision-making power.”
3. “So as indicated by newly published data by famous physicians, we should drink water at least 2 liters daily.”
4. “Smoking has a harmful effect on society. This can be seen from the poor performance of college students who smoke and from the fact that students who smoke regularly tend to read with less comprehension than students who don’t smoke regularly.”
5. “The quick extinction of the ecosystem of the Amazon threatens the entire planet. Consequently, we have to take immediate steps to convince the Country Y government that planned development projects need to be curtailed for the simple reason that these development projects will greatly accelerate the loss of currently protected land.”
1. Conclusion: we will most probably face tremendous competition in almost every business.
2. Conclusion: The political condition in Afghanistan is unstable.
3. Conclusion: We should drink water at least 2 liters daily.
4. Conclusion: Smoking has a harmful effect on society.
5. Conclusion: we have to take immediate steps to convince the Country Y government that planned development projects need to be curtailed.
In C.R questions, you must develop a habit of reading the question statement first, without answer choices. This is important in order to keep in mind the point where you need to focus while reading the Argument. As I said, there are different strategy for different question types, that we’ll discuss in later lectures in advance level. So first you must know what question I need to answer before reading the Argument in C.R and then find the conclusion of the argument if stated.